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工夫:2018-07-05 02:02 点击:

A student may have found a solution to one of theworld's most urgent environmental crises – breeding bacteria capable of “eating” plastic and potentially breaking it down into harmless by-products. 一论理学生发明了可以用来处理当当代界最亟待处理的情况危急的办法。那便是繁衍可以“吃”塑料,并将其剖析成有害的副产物的微生物。 The microbes degrade polyethylene terephthalate– one of the world's most common plastics, used in clothing, drinks bottles and food packaging. 该微生物可以对天下上最罕见的塑料——聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯停止降解。该塑料常被用于布料,饮料瓶,另有食品包装。 It takes centuries to break down, in the meantime doing untold damage to its surroundings. 这种塑料通常要好几百年才干降解,同时也会对情况有着不行估计的侵害。 Morgan Vague, who is studying biology at Reed College in Oregon, said the process, if sped up, could play a “big part” of solutions to the planet's plastic problem, which sees millions of tonnesdumped in landfill and oceans every year. 就读于俄勒冈里德学院生物专业的先生Morgan Vague,称假如停顿减速的话,就可以处理天下上“大局部”的塑料题目,由于每年都有百万吨的塑料渣滓埋葬或许投入海中。 Around 300 million tonnes of plastic is discarded each year, and only about 10 per cent of it is recycled. 每年有3亿吨塑料渣滓被抛弃,此中只要10%会循环再应用。 “When I started learning about the statistics about all the plastic waste we have, essentially that told me we have a really serious problem here and we need some way to address it,” Ms Vague told . “当我理解到这些塑料渣滓的统计数据,我认识到题目时何等的严厉,我们需求一些办法来处置,”Vague密斯说道。 After she began learning about bacterial metabolism and “all the crazy things bacteria can do”, the student decided to find out if there were microbes out there able to degrade plastic. 在学习了细菌代谢并理解了“细菌可以处置这些猖獗的物质之后”她决议找出能否有细菌可以降解塑料。 She began hunting for microbes adapted to degrade plastic in the soil and water around refineries in her hometown of Houston. 于是她开端寻觅她故乡休斯敦左近精粹厂阁下可以降解泥土和水中的塑料的微生物。 Taking her samples back to college in Portland, Oregon, Ms Vague began testing around 300 strains of bacteria for lipase, a fat-digesting enzyme potentially capable of breaking down plastic and making it palatable for the bacteria. 她把样品带回了俄勒冈州波特兰市,Vague密斯带回了300种脂肪酶细菌,把这些细菌培育成可以剖析塑料。 She identified 20 that produced lipase, and of those three that boasted high levels of the enzyme. 她挑出此中的20种可以发生脂肪酶,此中的有三种发生的酶含量最高。 Next she put the three microbes, on a forced diet of PET she cut from strips of water bottles. 之后她将塑料水瓶裁成条状,将这三种新培育的细菌放入。 She was stunned to find the bacteria worked to digest the PET. 让她震惊的是,细菌开端剖析塑料。 “It looks like it breaks it down into harmless by-products that don't do any environmental damage, so right now what it's doing is breaking down the hydrocarbons within the plastic, and then the bacteria is able to use that as food and fuel,” she said. “看起来细菌把塑料酿成了一种有害的副产物,并且对情况不会形成没有任何破坏,如今看来细菌剖析塑猜中碳氢化合物,细菌将其用作食品或许是燃料,“她说。 But she warned there was a “long way to go” until we will start to see the microbes eating plastic at anything like the rate useful in disposing of plastics. 不外该先生说,直到细菌剖析塑料的速率可以遇上塑料被抛弃的速率,另有一段很长的路要走, The next step, said Jay Mellies, a microbiologist who supervised MsVague's thesis, is to speed it up, improve pre-treatments on the PET to make it more palatable, and to get the bacteria to work on a variety of plastics. 该先生的论文导师、微生物学家Jay Mellies说要进步微生物的剖析的速率,下一步让细菌更合适剖析塑料,并且实用于种种差别的塑料。

“The plastic problem is huge and all of us are beginning to be aware of it,” he said. “This is not going to be the total solution, but I think it's going to be part of the solution.” “塑料的题目很严厉,并且我们也都开端惹起注重,”他说“这不是最美满的处理方法,不外我想这项研讨能处理一局部的题目。” Professor John McGeehan, a biologist at the University of Plymouth, who has done research into plastic-degrading enzymes, warned MsVague's research was in its early stages and more testing was needed. 普利茅斯的生物学家McGeehan,之前做过降解塑料酶的研讨,劝诫Vague密斯,其研讨还处在低级阶段,另有很多的测试要做。 “These are naturally occurring bacteria that are out there in the environment and we're not looking to genetically engineer them, we're just trying to isolate bacteria and then treat the plastic in a way the bacteria can naturally digest it.” “在天然情况中被来就存在着可以降解塑料的细菌,我们不用人为的改动它们,我们只需把细菌断绝,然后提供塑料,它们就可以主动把塑料降解。”